Table Of Contents

COM vs Nano-COM

DirectX uses a interface model referred to casually as “Nano-COM”, which utilises the ABI (application-binary interface - a topic for another article, but basically how different programs interact on a binary level, e.g parameter passing, errors, etc), as well as the error-code model of COM.

As anyone who has worked with COM or Win32 before will know, windows loves its typedefs. Not too many are essential to know, but a few are frequently used in COM code:


IUnknown is the base interface of all COM types. Everything derives from it, and DirectX interfaces are no exception. This interface has 3 methods, which allow reference counting and inheritance/aggregation, and are the core methods required to manage arbitrary COM objects. (All these methods must be thread safe)

UINT AddRef();
UINT Release();
HRESULT QueryInterface(REFGUID pIID, void** ppvObject);

All these methods will soon be explained - for now, just understand that any COM interface is implicitly convertable to an IUnknown*. Similar to Java’s Java.lang.Object type or .NET’s System.Object type, it acts as the base of all types in the ecosystem.

Note: You always work through COM objects with pointers. Never ever derefence them (if your language allows it). You will get horrible object slicing and inevitable memory corruption. :(

Reference Counting

COM objects are memory-managed by reference counting, where the COM object stores how many references to it exist to control its lifetime, and then destroys itself when there are none left (never use delete on a COM interface!). AddRef and Release are the 2 methods used for manipulating reference counts. AddRef, as the name suggests, increments the object’s internal reference counter, and then it returns the new reference count. Release decrements the COM object’s internal counter, and then it also returns the new reference count (note that the documentation for IUnknown says these return values should only be relied upon for testing purposes, and not for general code (it isn’t your business how many references a COM object has!)). If the call to Release results in the counter decrementing to 0, then the COM object’s lifetime ends, and it is destroyed, roughly speaking. However, the DirectX runtime may keep objects alive even when their ref count appears to be 0 because they are still in use - and in D3D11 there are cases where because of this behaviour, some objects were revivable. However, from an app perspective, this is fairly irrelevant and shouldn’t be a concern. Any further calls on the object are undefined behaviour (you can’t “revive” it with an AddRef call). It is worth noting that the D3D12 debug layer frequently will warn you of double-releasing an object, but often will simply crash if you invoke other methods on a destroyed object.

PrivateDate and object names

Private data and object names are a DirectX concept, not a COM concept, but they are very much worth covering here. All D3D12 interfaces inherit from ID3D12Object (which in turn inherits from IUnknown), which contains the private data methods. For completeness, all the DirectX “base” objects are:

All of these types have 3 methods.

HRESULT GetPrivateData(REFGUID guid, UINT* pDataSize, void* data);
HRESULT SetPrivateData(REFGUID guid, UINT dataSize, const void* data);
HRESULT SetPrivateDataInterface(REFGUID guid, IUnknown* data);

ID3D12Object and IDMLObject usefully have a fourth method:

HRESULT SetName(/* I hate this type name too. It is a WCHAR*. Just a UTF16 string I promise */ LPCWSTR Name);

This is just shorthand for SetPrivateData with WKPDID_D3DDebugObjectNameW (WKPDID means Well-Known Pointer to Data ID) GUID. For ASCII strings, use WKPDID_D3DDebugObjectName and manual SetPrivateData.

These are effectively hashmap methods on every object, allowing you to store arbitrary data in them. The most common one by far is storing the object name, either via SetName or WKPDID_D3DDebugObjectNameW/WKPDID_D3DDebugObjectName, which debugging tools and the DirectX runtime recognise for error messages, which makes life easier. Just generate a new IID for the data you want to store and tada, you can attach it.

GUIDs are used for identifying the data, and are sometimes called DIDs (Data-IDs).

SetPrivateData sets data associated with a guid for retrieval later. Set dataSize to 0 and data to NULL to destroy associated data for a guid.

SetPrivateDataInterface allows you to associate other COM interfaces with an object, by passing it as an IUnknown. This way, each call to GetPrivateData will result in an AddRef so that reference counting still works. You use the standard GetPrivateData to retrieve it, with a size of void*, and then must Release the returned interface when finished with it. If the object you called SetPrivateDataInterface is destroyed, it calls Release on all its set interfaces, allowing you to associate lifetimes between objects.

GetPrivateData, when pData is NULL, writes the stored data size to the pDataSize parameter allowing you to determine the size if necessary (for an array or variable sized type). When pData is not NULL, if it is larger than the size of the stored data, the data will be written to data and then the amount of data written will be written to pDataSize.

E.g, to retrieve a fixed size structure and a name

template <class T>
T RetrieveNamedData(ID3D12Object* pObj, REFGUID did)
    T val;
    UINT size = sizeof(val);
    if (FAILED(pObj->GetPrivateData(did, &size, &val)) || size != sizeof(val))
        throw std::runtime_error(...);
    return val;

std::wstring RetrieveName(ID3D12Object* pObj)
    REFGUID did = WKPDID_D3DDebugObjectNameW;
    UINT size = 0;
    if (FAILED(pObj->GetPrivateData(did, &size, nullptr)) || size == 0)
        return L"Unnamed object";

    std::wstring name(0, size);
    assert(SUCCEEDED(pObj->GetPrivateData(did, &size,; // not thread safe example
    return name;


A GUID isn’t a COM concept, and just means Globally-Unique ID. They are just a 128 bit value to identify something. Because 2^128 is big (really big. really really big. really really really big), you can generally assume any generated GUID is unique. Visual Studio has an inbuilt generator to create GUIDs for various formats, or you can use a website such as guidgenerator.

An IID is used to identify an interface programmatically, as a sort of crude RTTI system. For example, the IID of IUnknown is 00000000-0000-0000-C000-000000000046, and the IID of ID3D12Device is 189819F1-1DB6-4B57-BE54-1821339B85F7.

To retrieve an IID of an interface, in Visual C++ or C# (with TerraFX.Interop.Windows) you can use the __uuidof operator.

You will commonly find the combination of an IID and a void** being used to represent some sort of COM interface output. The IID represents which interface you want to receive, and the void** is the actual pointer to be outputted to. For example, QueryInterface uses this pattern. To simplify it, there is a macro called IID_PPV_ARGS in combaseapi.h

A CLSID is similar to an IID, except it represents a concrete instance of a type rather than an interface. These aren’t used in core DirectX but they are used by the DirectX Shader Compiler and so are worth briefly covering.

DxcCreateInstance is a factory method used to create interfaces, and it takes two IIDs (unlike factory methods like D3D12CreateDevice). One IID, to indicate the type you are representing it as (e.g, DxcCompiler is a valid IDxcCompiler, IDxcCompiler2, and IDxcCompiler3), and one CLSID to indicate which type you want to create to implement that interface (currently there is only one option for each interface as far as I know, but this could change).

IDxcCompiler* compiler;
DxcCreateInstance(CLSID_DxcUtils, __uuidof(*compiler), CLSID_DxcCompiler);
IUnknown* pUnk;
GUID unknown_iid = __uuidof(IUnknown);
// or
GUID unknown_iid = __uuidof(*pUnk);
IUnknown* pUnk;
Guid unknownIid = __uuidof<IUnknown>();
// or
Guid unknownIid = __uuidof(*pUnk);

You can also use the static IID definitions in the various DX header files, such as

GUID unknown_iid = IID_IUnknown;

Doing this requires linking against dxguid.lib, unless you want your linker to kaboom.

QueryInterface, inheritance, and aggregation

QueryInterface is the method used for casting safely between COM interfaces. It is analagous to a slightly more restrictive version of is/as in C#, instanceof in Java/Python, and dynamic_cast in C++.

To recap, the signature is

HRESULT QueryInterface(REFGUID iid, void** ppvObject);

This IID + ppvObject pattern pops up a lot, so there is a macro to help you. IID_PPV_ARGS, which is defined as roughly (it actually uses a complex fancy template, but this gets the point across):

#define IID_PPV_ARGS(pObj) __uuidof(*(pObj)), (void **)(pObj)

You use it as such:

IComInterfaceBlah* res = nullptr;
SomeIidPpvMethod(..., IID_PPV_ARGS(&res));

You can find this macro in combaseapi.h as well as in the DirectX-Headers and DirectXTK12 repos on github.

COM has both inheritance and aggregation, and uses QueryInterface to encompass both. Inheritance here meaning identity conversions (so your pointer to an ID3D12Device7 is actually also an ID3D12Device4), whereas aggregation simply means the interface may contain the desired interface as a field, meaning it can only be accessed through QueryInterface (your ID3D12Devic4 might support ID3D12Device7, but it itself is not necessarily an ID3D12Device7).

The iid parameter is the IID of the interface you want. ppvObject is a pointer to the interface-pointer it will be outputted to. Note: You can never safely downcast a COM pointer based on a QueryInterface result. Your ID3D12Device may implement ID3D12Device1, but not necessarily through the original pointer. You can safely upcast where there is an explicit inheritance - e.g ID3D12Device1 inherits from ID3D12Device, so it can be safely converted to an ID3D12Device*. However, an arbitrary ID3D12Device may have been created in some way where its child interfaces are exposed through aggregation rather than inheritance, so the returned object could be different. However, because that interface does directly inherit from ID3D12Device, you can safely upcast it. It’s a little bit to wrap your head around.

C++ has a convenience overload of QueryInterface which takes a typed ppvObject and gets the IID for you.

template<class Q>
HRESULT QueryInterface(Q** pp)
    return QueryInterface(__uuidof(Q), (void **)pp);

QueryInterface can return 3 things. E_POINTER, meaning your ppvObject was NULL and so the call failed. E_NOINTERFACE, meaning the call succeeded but the interface could not be supplied (it isn’t inherited or aggregated), and ppvObject has been set to NULL, or S_OK meaning it succeeded and ppvObject is set to the desired interface and had a reference added to it, and must be Released when it is finished being used.


DirectX uses a very simple (but in my opinion, quite elegant) technique for versioning. Each new version of an interface just has an incrementing number attached to it. E.g ID3D12Device, ID3D12Device1, …, all the way to ID3D12Device9 now. As a general rule, ID3D12FooN inherits from ID3D12Foo(N-1), and so you can safely upcast, but to get to ID3D12FooN from ID3D12Foo(N+1) you must QueryInterface. The exception is all the debug interfaces, (they all inherit from IUnknown instead! why!!! why!!!!. except ID3D12Debug3… which inherits from ID3D12Debug… just to make it more confusing).

This is one of the reasons most creation methods take an IID + ppvObject. Instead of doing

ID3D12Resource* pTmp;
ID3D12Resource4* pRes;

ThrowIfFailed(device->CreateResource(..., &pTmp));

you can just do

ID3D12Resource4* pRes;
ThrowIfFailed(device->CreateResource(..., IID_PPV_ARGS(&pRes)));


A HRESULT is a 32 bit signed integer representing an error or success code. The reason for the slightly strange naming is that it was originally a result-handle, rather than an error code, (like a HWND is a window-handle, a HINSTANCE is an instance-handle, a HRESULT was a result-handle). But that was too heavy and deemed unnecessary early on, so it became a 32 bit signed integer error code instead.

A HRESULT has 3 elements - a severity (error or success), a facility (where it comes from), and a code (what it is). The severity is the sign bit, where a 1 (negative number) means an error and a 0 (positive number) means a success. To inspect this bit, there are 2 macros in winerror.h:

#define FAILED(hr) (((HRESULT)(hr)) < 0)
#define SUCCEEDED(hr) (((HRESULT)(hr)) >= 0)

There are HRESULT_SEVERITY, HRESULT_FACILITY, HRESULT_CODE, and MAKE_HRESULT macros too that are relatively self explanatory, but generally not used for DirectX.

There are only 2 success codes used by DirectX:

Note: Every single CreateXXX method (including D3D12CreateDevice) can have a valid IID passed and a NULL ppvObject to test creation. This can be useful.

The important error codes to know are:

All of the following indicate device removal:

COM pointer types

These 3 types all have one primary role, which is to manage AddRef/Release for you, so they Release at the end of their lifetime, and AddRef when copied, etc

Some note-worthy points about these types:

ComPtr<ID3D12DescriptorHeap> _resHeap;

cmdList->SetDescriptorHeaps(1, &_resHeap); // you just released the descriptor heap before passing it, and have now caused use-after-free. Use .GetAddressOf (or addressof for com_ptr_t instead)

Debugging COM leaks

COM leaks are a real, real, real pain to debug. Thankfully, DirectX has a few helpers that make discovering and fixing leaks a lot easier.

Your first port of call should be ID3D12DebugDevice::ReportLiveDeviceObjects (QueryInterface the debug device off of the D3D12 device). I recommend using D3D12_RLDO_DETAIL | D3D12_RLDO_IGNORE_INTERNAL flags for noticing leaks - you get object types and names (when named), and ignore stuff being kept alive by the D3D12 runtime, which aren’t your responsibility.

ID3DDestructionNotifier is also a useful type. QueryInterface for it off of you D3D12 object, and then call RegisterDestructionCallback that will be called when the object is released (the ref count equals 0). You can then log this, set a breakpoint, etc - just note you cannot safely access the object, as it may have started the destruction process and so the object’s internal state is undefined.